Job analysis is the first measure in planing and implementing a compensation system. The aim in finishing a occupation analysis is to place the content of the occupation. the cognition and accomplishments necessary to execute the occupation successfully and the conditions under which the occupation is performed.
Job analysis may be defined as systematic elaborate survey of occupations. dwelling of placing and analyzing what is required of the individual assigned to the occupation and the elements and features of the occupation.
Job analysis is a systematic procedure for roll uping. documenting and analysing information in order to depict occupations and sometimes the occupation responsibilities. workers demands. and the occupation context or working conditions. Job analysis is a systematic expounding of the activities within a occupation. It is scientific method to specify the responsibilities. duties. and answerabilities of a occupation. It involves the designation and description of what is go oning on the occupation and besides the accomplishments and makings of forces needed for the occupation. Job analysis may besides specify as an scrutiny of the occupations in an organisation with a position to documenting the cognition. accomplishments. and abilities ( KSAs ) associated with successful public presentation of those occupations. Knowledge is the organic structure of information. normally of a factual or procedural nature that allows single to execute a undertaking successfully. Skill is the individual’s degrees of proficiency or competence in executing a specific undertaking. Degree of competence is typically expressed in numerical footings. Abilities are more general. digesting traits or capablenesss an single possesses at the clip when he or she begins to execute undertaking. Competences are any cognition. accomplishments. traits. motivation. attitudes. values. or other personal features that is indispensable to execute the occupation and that differentiates superior from solid public presentation.
The analysis frequently is conducted by interviews. by direct observation. or by the usage of questionnaire completed by individual presently keeping the occupation and their immediate supervisors. The analysis focused on the undermentioned inquiries: Who does the work?
What is done?
When is it done?
How is it done?
Why is it done?
Some major issues in occupation analysis: –
( Analysis for what intent
( What in formation to roll up.
( How to roll up information
( Who should be involved
( Utility of remits.
Importance of Job analysis:
Job analysis provides a foundation for transporting out many HRM duty like: –
1. Work redesign.
2. Human resources planning.
5. Performance assessment.
6. Career planning.
7. Job rating.
8. Comply with regulations & A ; ordinances.
9. Job analysis helps supervisors and other directors carryout their responsibilities.
Job Content refers to the existent activities that employees must execute in the occupation. Job content descriptions may be wide. general statements of occupation activities or elaborate descriptions of responsibilities and undertakings performed in the occupation. Workers Requirements represent the minimal makings and accomplishments that people must hold to execute a peculiar occupation. Such demands normally include instruction. experience. licences. licenses. and specific abilities and accomplishments such as typing. outlining. or redacting. Working Condition are the societal context or physical environment where work will be performed Physical Environment vary along several dimensions. based on the degree of noise and possible exposure to risky factors. including risky chemicals. work equipments etc. Stairss in Job Analysis Process
a ) Determine the intents of occupation analysis: The intent of occupation analysis must be clearly specified. This aid the analyst to carry on occupation analysis concentrating toward the aim of the plan. B ) Determine the occupation analysis plan: A company must make up one’s mind between utilizing an constituted system or developing its ain system tailored to specific demands. Both established and custom occupation analysis plans vary in the method of assemblage. The administrative costs represent a major consideration in choosing a occupation analysis method. degree Celsius ) Select and train analysts: A taskforce of representatives from through out the company conducts the occupation analysis. and HR staff members coordinate it. Although some companies rely on HR professional to organize and carry on occupation analysis. many usage squad to stand for changing positions on work. because virtually all employees interact with coworkers and supervisors. Before the undertaking force embarks on a occupation analysis. members need to be taught about the basic premises of the theoretical account and the processs they must follow.
The preparation should include treatments of the study’s aims. how the information will be used. methodological analysis overviews. treatments and presentations of the information assemblage techniques. Analysts besides should be trained to minimise opportunity that they will carry on uneffective occupation analyses. The occupation analysts must be familiar with construction of pertinent occupation informations. vitamin D ) Direct Job analyst orientation: Before analysts start specific occupation analysis techniques. they must analyse the context in which employees perform their work to better understand influencing factors. In add-on. analysts should obtain and reexamine such internal information as organisational charts. listings of occupation rubrics. categorization of each place to be analyzed. occupation incumbent names and pay rates. and any instructional brochures or enchiridions for operating equipments. Job analysts may besides happen pertinent occupation information from external beginnings. vitamin E ) Conduct the survey: Data aggregation methods and Beginnings of informations: Once analysts have gathered and made sense of these preliminary informations. they can get down garnering and entering information for each occupation in the company. Analysts should carefully take the method of informations aggregation and beginnings of informations. The most common methods are questionnaires. interviews. engagements and observation.
Questionnaires direct occupation incumbents’ and supervisors’ descriptions of the incumbents’ work through a series of inquiries and statements. Observation requires occupation analyst to enter perceptual experiences they formed while watching employees perform their occupations. The most common beginning of occupation analysis informations are occupation officeholders. supervisors and the occupation analysts. Experienced occupation officeholders will supply the most extended. elaborate and penetrations about how they performed occupation responsibilities. Supervisors besides should supply extended and elaborate information with different focal point. Due to the most familiar with the interrelatednesss among occupations within their sections. supervisors are likely in the best place to depict how employees executing different occupations interact. Job analysts should affect as many occupation officeholders and supervisors as possible because employees with the same occupation rubrics may hold different experiences. Companies strives to carry on occupation analyses that lead to dependable and valid occupation ratings consequences.
degree Fahrenheit ) Summarize the consequences: Writing occupation descriptions. : The occupation analysts has to fix occupation description and occupation specifications at this phase. Job descriptions summarize a job’s intents and name its undertakings. responsibilities. and duties. and occupation context in which the occupation holder has to dispatch his undertakings. Job specifications summarize the accomplishments. cognition. abilities. educational making. competences. particular preparation and professional making required for effectual discharge of occupation duties. Job specifications indicate the lower limit acceptable making required by the person to execute the undertaking expeditiously. Based on the information obtained from the occupation analysis processs. occupation specifications identify the makings. appropriate accomplishments. cognition. abilities. and experience required to execute the occupation. It besides specifies non merely educational makings but besides certain personality features that may be required specifically for a occupation.
Typical informations collected for Job analysis:
Choice standards for occupation analysis methods:
I ) costs
two ) Time
three ) Flexibility
four ) Validity and dependability
V ) Credence
Data aggregation methods:
a ) Observation methods
B ) Questionnaire methods: ( I ) Structured ( two ) Unstructured degree Celsius ) Interview methods: ( I ) Interviewing the officeholder ( II ) Interviewing a group of employees. and ( three ) Interviewing the supervisor. vitamin D ) Dairy
vitamin E ) Survey of records.
Assorted facets of occupation to be analyzed: Job analysis should roll up information on the undermentioned countries a ) Duties and undertakings
B ) Environment
degree Celsius ) Tools and equipments
vitamin D ) Relationships
vitamin E ) Requirements.
Structured Job Analysis is the usage of a standard format for occupation descriptions so that all organisations can utilize the same occupation classs. The most common attacks for structural occupation analysis are: a ) Functional Job Analysis ( FJA ) :
B ) Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ )
degree Celsius ) Management Position Description Questionnaire ( MPDQ )
vitamin D ) The Hay Plan.
a ) Functional Job Analysis ( FJA ) : The United States Training and Employment Services ( USTES ) developed functional occupation analysis to depict the nature of occupations and to develop occupation sum-ups. occupation descriptions. and employee specifications. FJA. originally meant to better occupation arrangement and reding for workers registering for employment at local employment offices. was a portion of an intensive research plan directed toward bring forthing the 1965 edition of the Directory of Occupational rubrics ( DOT ) . FJA is both a conceptual system for specifying the dimensions of worker activity and a method of mensurating degrees of worker activity. The FJA employs a series of written undertaking statements. each incorporating four indispensable elements: ( 1 ) a verb related to the undertaking action being performed by the workers ( 2 ) an object that refers to what is being acted on. ( 3 ) a description of tools. equipments. AIDSs. and processes required for successful completion of the undertakings. and ( 4 ) the end products or consequences of task completion. Today. many facets of it are used by a figure of private and public organisations.
The completed undertaking statements are used to depict any occupation and FJA analyzes any occupation utilizing three indispensable elements: ( I ) People ( of import interpersonal relationships on the occupation ) . ( two ) information ( obtaining. utilizing. and transforming informations in assistance of occupation public presentation ) . and ( three ) things ( physical machinery. resources. and the environment ) . Each of these three dimensions is so rated by degree of complexness and importance. The cardinal premises of FJA are: I ) A cardinal differentiation must be made between what gets done and what workers do to acquire things done. two ) Jobs are concerned with informations. people. and things. three ) In relation to things. workers draw on physical resources ; in relation to informations. on mental resources ; and in relation to people. on interpersonal resources. four ) All occupations require the workers to associate to informations. people. and things to some grade. V ) Although the behaviour of workers or the undertakings they perform can seemingly be described in an infinite figure of ways. there are merely a few unequivocal maps involved. six ) The maps appropriate to covering with informations. people. or things are hierarchal and ordinal. continuing from simple to the composite.
B ) McCormick’s Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ ) : is a construction occupation analysis checklist that includes 194 inquiries or occupations points or occupation elements about work behaviours. work conditions. and occupation features that apply to a broad assortment of occupations and that are used to rate a occupation. It describes occupations in term of worker activities. The different occupation elements are incorporated into the undermentioned six dimensions: I ) Information input: – Where and how a worker gets information needed to execute the occupation. two ) Mental procedures: – The concluding determination devising. planning. and information processing activities involved in executing the occupation. three ) Work end product: – The physical activities. tools. and devices used by the worker to execute the occupation. four ) Relations with other individual: – The relationship with other people required to executing the occupation V ) Job content: – The physical and societal contexts where the work is performed. six ) Other features: – The activities conditions. and characteristics other than those antecedently described that are relevant to the occupation.
In the PAQ the nature of occupations is basically determined in footings of Communication / determination making/ societal duties ; public presentation of skilled activities ; physical activities and related environmental conditions ; operations of vehicles and equipments ; and processing of information. Using these five dimensions. occupations can be compared and clustered. The occupation bunchs can so be used for. among other things. staffing determinations. and the development of occupation descriptions and specifications.
The PAQ’s trust on individual oriented traits allows it to be applied across a assortment of occupations and organisations without alteration. This. of class. allows organisation to more easy compare their occupation analyses with those of other organisations. The major drawback in following the PAQ is its sheer length. even though its checklist format aid up the analysis procedure.
Computerized Program are available for hiting PAQ evaluations on the footing of seven dimensions:
I ) Decision-making
two ) Communication
three ) Social duties
four ) Performing skilled activities
V ) Being physically active
six ) Operating vehicles or equipments
seven ) Processing information.
degree Celsius ) Management Position Description Questionnaire ( MPDQ ) : This method of occupation analysis relies upon the cheque list method to analyse occupations. It contains 208 points related to the concern and duties of directors. their demands and limitations. and assorted features. These 208 points have been condensed into 13 occupation factors:
• Product. Market. and fiscal planning
• Coordination of other organisational units and forces
• Internal concern control
• Products and services duties
• Public and client dealingss
• Advanced consulting
• Autonomy of action
• Approval of fiscal committednesss
• Staff service
• Complexity and emphasis
* Advanced fiscal duties
• Broad forces duties
The MPDQ is designed for managerial places. but responses to the points vary by managerial degree in any organisation and besides in different organisations. The MPDQ is appropriate for finding the preparation demands of employees traveling into managerial occupations ; measuring managerial occupations ; making occupation households and puting new managerial occupations into the right occupation household ; and counterbalancing managerial occupations.
vitamin D ) The Hay Plan: Another method of analysing managerial occupations is the Hay program. Edward Hay and Associates ( Hay Group ) developed this system of occupation analysis which is used in a big figure organisations for its confer withing work in compensation and organisational analysis. Although much less structured than the PAQ and MPDQ. it is consistently tied to occupation rating and compensation system. Therefore the usage of Hay program allows an organisation to keep consistence non merely in how it describe managerial occupations but besides in how it rewards them. The intents of the Hay program are direction development. arrangement. and enlisting ; occupation rating ; measuring of the executing of a occupation against specific criterions of answerability ; and organisation analysis.
The Hay system uses three cardinal factors to analyse each occupation: ( I ) know-how ( the particular cognition and accomplishments required to execute the occupation ) ’ ( two ) problem-solving ( the determinations and jobs that must be successfully handled on the occupation ) . and ( three ) answerability ( the jobholders duties for critical undertaking completion and for organisational resources. budgets. supervising of people. etc. ) . Points are assigned to each factor for ( 1 ) degrees of cognition ( occupation deepness ) and ( 2 ) comprehensiveness of cognition required to execute the occupation ( occupation range ) . The amount of the points assigned to the occupation locates it in an overall compensation strategy that provides higher wage to those occupation holders whose occupations were rated higher by the occupation analysis. The Hay program is based on an interview between the occupation analyst and the occupation officeholder. The information that is gathered relates to four facets of the incumbent’s occupation: the aims. the dimensions. the nature and range of the place. and the answerability aims. Because the Hay program is based on information gathered in an interview. the success of the program depends upon the accomplishments of the interviewer. The interviewers can be trained. nevertheless. and the Hay program grows in popularity.
Job description plays a really of import function in the field of human resource direction. It is a ‘factual statement of the responsibilities and duties of a specific job’ . In other words. it describes the work performed. the duties involved. the accomplishment or preparation required. the conditions under which the work is done and the type of individual required for the occupation. A occupation description is a written statement of what the occupation holder does. how it is done. under what conditions. and why. It should accurately portray occupation content. environment. and conditions of employment. The occupation description clearly identifies and spells out the duties of a specific occupation. It besides includes information about working conditions. tools. equipment used. cognition. and accomplishments needed and relationships with other places.
Uses of Job description:
a ) It is most widely used in connexion with pay and salary disposal. B ) It gives information to the member of the choice board about the cognition. accomplishments. preparation. instruction and aptitude required for each occupation degree Celsius ) It gives elucidation to the freshly recruited employees what they need to cognize about his occupation. vitamin D ) It provides an excellence cheque list to follow-up the work and doing public presentation reappraisal. vitamin E ) It is helpful to plan an effectual preparation plan for human resources. degree Fahrenheit ) It help to guarantee equity in compensation system. which in bend improve of the employee. g ) Job description is indispensable in be aftering alterations in organisational design and construction. H ) Job description assistance in bettering quality of disposal and supervising by their nonsubjective description of duties for supervising and job-to-job dealingss. I ) Job description may besides be helpful in safety plan. bespeaking risky Acts of the Apostless and proposing alterations in operations.
FEATURES OF A GOOD JOB DESCRIPTION
1. A occupation description must be up-to-date in order to do it more effectual. 2. The rubric should clearly bespeak the rule demands made by the jobholder. 3. The sum-up of primary responsibilities gives an overview of what the occupation basically is? It besides indicates what the occupation is. besides who and to what extent this peculiar occupation differs from other occupations? 4. A occupation description should be sufficiently complete.
5. The occupation description should supply a clear image of important working conditions such as noise. heat. temperature etc. 6. All information must be written in footings that can be readily understood. The linguistic communication should be simple. clear. and concise.