Some early chemical analyses of proprietary medicines

Early in the nineteenth century several attempts were made to disclose the compositions of secret remedies, but the performance rarely matched the promise. The first volume of the Monthly Gazette of Health (1816) was largely devoted to exposing “the nefarious practices of pretenders, who, for the sake of lucre, sport with the feelings and lives […]

Characterization of an enzyme

Enzyme is a protein molecule that acts as the biological catalyst of chemical reaction where the substrates are converted into products. With the aids of enzyme, the rate of reaction will be increased since the enzyme provides an alternative pathway for reaction by lowering the activation energy needed (Taylor et al., 1997). An enzyme is […]

Determine the formula of hydrated Sodium Carbonate

Na2CO3.x H2O is the formula for hydrated Sodium Carbonate, where x represents the number of water molecules present in the crystals. The first method I will use to determine x, will involve heating the crystals. When the crystals are heated, they readily effloresce to form a white powder, the anhydrous form Na2CO3 1. Hydrated Sodium […]

Synthesis of Benzocaine

A. Introduction/Aims: The aim of the current investigation is to investigate the acid-catalysed Fischer esterification mechanism underlying the synthesis of the anaesthetic benzocaine using p-aminobenzoic acid and ethanol in excess. The resulting synthesised compound was subject to IR and melting point analyses in order to determine the identity and indeed the purity of the obtained […]

Experiment to investigate the heat of combustion of alcohols

Introduction The heat of combustion of alcohols is the change in kJ/mol when 1 mole of the alcohol is burnt in excess oxygen (O2). I will be investigating 6 alcohols, using predictions and a practical to guide me through this experiment and form an overall conclusion. Using formulas and calculations, I can show how much […]

Chemistry Video Games

For many years students have been taught in the traditional classroom setting. You have a teacher, blackboard and a desk. Most students want to learn, but loss interest or are discouraged when they learn above or below the average learning speed. But when students are offered an opportunity that allows them to learn at their […]