The History Of Dalit Migration
Peoples migrating from developing parts of the state to developed parts of the state in hunt of supports are non something new in India. People down the ages have adopted livelihood variegation scheme such as long term and short term migration to cover with contingencies. But what is new is that this phenomenon has experienced an unprecedented growing in the recent times, ( Deshingkar, 2008 ) . There exists a broad disparity between the existent figure of migrators and the figures quoted by the authorities. The ground for this spread, that National Sample Survey does non acknowledge seasonal migration, where people migrate to other topographic points without altering the topographic point of their abode as migrators.
Harmonizing to the International Labour Organization ( ILO ) the figure of migrators around the universe has gone from 75 million in 1965 to 120 million in 2001 ( Stalker, 2001 ) . In instance of India, migration rate has increased from 27.4 per centum of the population in 1991 to 30 per centum in 2001 ( Deshingkar, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Karan the migration rates in Bihar has increased from 7.5 per cent in ( 1981-1983 ) to 13.4 per centum in ( 1995-2000 ) to the entire population of the province. This unprecedented growing in the figure of migrators is an indicant that internal migration plays an of import function in supplying an alternate support for the hapless in the development states. And this phenomenon is here to remain.
This survey makes no effort to analyze forced migration of people caused by civil war, internal struggles, natural catastrophes etc. It chiefly focal points on migration as a scheme adopted by hapless families from the developing parts of the state to heighten their support chances. This survey deals with short-run internal migration
“ Bihar survives on the money order economic system ” this was the phrase frequently repeated by the contrivers and development militants 1980s and 1990s, significance, the importance of remittals earned and sent by the migratory laborers from Bihar played a important function in the overall economic system of the province. Today nevertheless, with the coming of e-banking and ATM the usage of money order has about vanished. But internal migration affecting the dalits, landless, hapless and the less educated individuals has become a broad spread phenomenon in Bihar. These groups migrate to other parts of the state in hunt of better support chances. The jammed trains go forthing Bihar to other provinces, gives us an indicant that migration is turning twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. It is non really uncommon to happen unskilled laborers from Bihar working in the building industries in Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, and jute Millss in West Bengal,
It is pertinent to foreground Ellis ( 2000 ) differentiation between ‘livelihood variegation out of pick and out of necessity ‘ . The former refers to voluntary migration, whereby a individual decides to migrate out of free pick ; and the latter refers to migration as a last resort, where a individual migrates due to utmost adversity. While the husbandman may be true in the instance white neckband occupations, where migration presents an attractive option for skilled personal, the latter may be applied to all the non-skilled or semi-skilled individuals who take to migration as the last resort to better their economic conditions. It has been observed that many of the migrators who migrate out of necessity borrow money at really high involvement to run into their initial disbursals which further pushes them into poorness.
Migration in India
Why persons and groups migrate from one topographic point to another depends on a big figure of inter-related micro, meso and macro degree factors, such as local webs, affinity ties, entree to economic assets, the operation of local degree establishments which provide different type of services, authorities policies, etc. That is why Kothari ( 2002 ) justly observes, ‘decisions act uponing ‘voluntary ‘ migration are non made in an economic, political or societal vacuity. Natural catastrophes, development enterprises, such as the edifice of dikes and roads, and struggle and war besides displace people and peculiarly affect those who are hapless and tend to hold minimum control over, or entree to, the political and economic capital necessary to impact the determinations which impact on their lives and supports. â€¦Decision-making does non merely affect the migrators but besides many others with whom they are connected and therefore has wider deductions and effects than on the migratory alone ‘ ( p.9 ) .
We do non hold accurate figures on the figure of migrators in India, as no information is maintained either at the issue point or at the entry point. A conservative estimation puts the figures at 30 1000000s. But the cause of migration varies from topographic point to topographic point. In provinces like Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madya Pradesh high drouth seems to be the main cause of seasonal migration, while in other provinces such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh unjust land distribution and low agricultural production seems to worsen the strength of migration ( Deshingkar,2008 ) . Harmonizing to Tinker more than one million Indians were taken to work in the sugar plantations in Mauritius, Natal, Malaya and Fiji. And most of them hailed from the province of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
History of migration in Bihar
The abolishment of bondage created labour deficit in many of the British settlements. This forced the colonisers to turn to India for low pay workers.
The debut of green revolution in the early 1970s necessitated a immense demand for human labor in the agricultural sector. Punjab and Hariyana were the favoured finishs for the hapless people from Bihar to happen employment chances. But this tendency seems to hold changed subsequently. The addition inclination of the husbandmans to travel in for mechanisation in these provinces has drastically reduced the demand for human labor. On the other manus the sudden mushrooming of existent estates in different parts of the state has created more demands for the less skilled human labor.
The semi-feudal economic system of Bihar with its skewed land distribution, low agricultural production ; fewer chances to diversify, hold resulted in low employment and support chances for the hapless, and thereby increasing the incidences of seasonal migration in the state.
While migration is of different types ; rural- to- urban, intra-state migration, inter-state migration, international migration, this survey attempts to look at the inter-state migration affecting the dalit communities in Bihar.
Migration and Poverty:
Migration proved an of import vehicle for economic mobility in all the survey small towns. Most of the agribusiness labours migrated to other developed provinces like Punjab and Haryana for paid employment in agribusiness sector while another set of migrators had either moved to different cities like Delhi and Bombay or to some industrial towns like Surat and Ludhiana. In most of the instances, they get instant employment. Some of the out migrator had moved to better their earning by manner of acquiring better employment chance but the larger subdivision had migrated merely as a portion of endurance scheme left at their disposal. Most of the agribusiness labours are migrating during thin agribusiness season at their native topographic point. There is a broad difference in rewards between the two topographic points. frequently more than double. If they get some work on contract footing, the return is more rewarding. The migrators after returning have sufficient salvaging for household members and their life status is better than their other opposite numbers ‘ who did n’t choose for out migration. This seasonal migration is more among north Bihar small towns where land- adult male ratio is really low and cropping form is less labour-intensive.
The other noteworthy characteristic is prevalence of low rewards while for adult females, it is more discriminating and many a topographic points they are paid half the rewards of their male opposite numbers. The major seeable impacts in all survey small towns were of lasting migratory income ; most of them are employed in urban countries in more skilled occupations or some trades. Their remittals had a considerable bearing on the living status of their other household members populating in small towns. Some of them had started more extended agriculture by geting new agricultural implements and other inputs like HYV seeds and as a consequence of this ; their productiveness had well increased. These out-migrants had invested their money in buying agricultural lands and building of pucca houses, which are of import indexs of being good off in rural society. Some of the villagers had taken lands on rental by paying beforehand rent from the remittals.
Nature of Migration from Bihar
Harmonizing to 1991 nose count Bihar and Uttar Pradesh constitute tierce of inter-state emigration in the state.
In Bihar it is the landless and nonreader who migrate to other topographic points insearch of support while in other provinces families with better economic and societal position and better educational makings are likely to migrate. Poor households send their immature male to distant topographic points for a short period of clip and the others remain the small town and carry on the agricultural work. The migrators non merely keep contact with their households but besides send their difficult earned money to their households to better their support, purchase lasting goods etc. Families migrating with the full family are non many.
Aims of the Study
The chief aims of the survey include ;
To understand the cardinal issues associating to dalit migration in Bihar.
To analyze the societal economic and educational backgrounds of the dalit migrators from Bihar.
To determine the strength of the push and pull factors responsible for dalit migration in Bihar.
To analyze the mechanism of Dalit migration in Bihar.
To analyze the inside informations sing their earning, disbursement and remittals sent place.
To understand the jobs faced by the migrators.
To analyse the positive and negative alterations that have taken taken topographic point in the houses of migrators and their communities.
A small town study was carried out. Household ( N = 160 )
Why this survey
While we have a figure of surveies covering with migration from Bihar ( Karan ; Singh, 1995 ) , there is barely any survey barely any survey covering with dalit migration per Se. This survey can be utile for explicating relevant support schemes for the hapless, particularly in the hapless parts of the state.
The term migration includes a broad spectrum of activities runing from day-to-day transposing to some nearby topographic points to for good switching one ‘s topographic point of abode to a distance topographic point.
The derived functions in rewards between the topographic points of beginning and finishs attract people from low pay countries to high pay countries.
Causes of Migration
Though there are a figure of societal, economic and cultural factors that force people to go forth the topographic point of their birth, poorness seems to be the dominant factor in all types of migration. In the instance of Bihar, poorness ensuing from deficiency of employment chances within the small town and low rewards has a stating consequence on people ‘s migration.
Absence of industry
Dearth of industrial development is seen as a large push factor for migration in Bihar. Young work forces find it highly hard to acquire a suited employment in the non-agriculture sector. They prefer to travel out.
Lack of equal employment chances
experient solitariness in the topographic point of finish. It can besides take to societal tenseness, as in the instance of Maharashtra.
Why Musahars do n’t Migrate
It is noticed that non all the hapless adopt migration as support variegation. Migration is besides extremely associated with one ‘s entree to and command over economic resources. This is the clear instance of the Musahar community in Bihar. It is observed that many of the Musahar families, who are inveterate hapless do n’t easy follow livelihood variegation schemes, such as migration, because they lack necessary societal capital, human capital, etc. Social capital in the signifier of societal webs is really important to obtain information sing employment chances, happening occupations and acquiring initial adjustments at finish points.
Why adult females do n’t migrate
The traditional division of labour i.e. adult male as the staff of life earner of the full household seems to deter female migration in Bihar. While work forces migrate in big figure, adult females on the other manus remain at place to look after the domestic and familial duties. This big graduated table male migration non merely strengthens the traditional division of labor but besides can take to inauspicious impacts on adult females ‘s authorization in the long tally, as adult females become dependent on work forces for their endurance and nutriment.
For those who live degrading poorness and wretchedness, migration offers an chance to better the quality of life. Staying in their ain topographic point does non offer them an shred of opportunity to better their life criterions.
Migration is manner to carry through their life long desire to get away destitution. This is besides an look of their yearning for a better life for their kids.
Migration and support
This survey fundamentally adopts livelihood attack to analyze migration. Migration as a support scheme focuses chiefly on the people capacity to cover with the societal, economic and political alterations in order to get the better of poorness and create ample chances to act upon support results.
Within this literature, migration is viewed preponderantly as lending positively to the accomplishment of secure supports, and making chances for hapless people to get away poorness ( Ellis, 2003 ) .
Theories of Migration
The economic theory focal points on the positive effects of migration. Harmonizing to the economic theory the pay derived functions between urban and rural countries is the cardinal factor responsible for rural-urban migration. So those who choose to migrate are strictly guided by the economic opportunisms.
Adopting a negative attack to migration the structuralist theory attributes political relations and other establishments as the major factors lending to migration. The structuralists see migration as the inevitable effect of capitalist economy. Harmonizing to them migration is ploy devised by the capitalists to command labor. They emphasis that migration is non free pick, but a survival scheme imposed on the hapless.
It refers to all those individuals who have migrated from the topographic point of their abode for at least one month in hunt of better support chances. In this survey the word migrator is used to mention to all those individuals have migrated for at least two months during the last one twelvemonth in hunt of support.
The survey is based on the primary study informations collected at two points of clip after a spread of about 18 old ages from indiscriminately selected 6 small towns of north Bihar. Out of these 6 small towns 2 each are from three territories viz. Gopalganj, Madhubani and Purnea. The information has been collected under two major research undertakings conducted during 1981-83 and 1999-2000. Besides this, the later survey ( 1999-2000 ) besides conducted a nose count study in 18 small towns ( including above mentioned 6 small towns ) covering a population of more than 38 1000s from more than 6400 families. The informations collected from nose count study has been mostly used to measure the socio-economic conditions of the survey country, and migrators and to analyze the strength of lasting migration from the small towns under survey.
Impact of migration
The positive impacts of migration are many, runing from poorness decrease to increased investing on physical and human capital. When the hapless increase their income they non merely fulfill their basic demands but besides invest in other productive activities such as educating their kids, refunding loans, buying movable and immovable assets etc.
Womans have become the determination shapers
The absence of work forces from the small town has led to adult females shouldering household duty. It has enabled adult females to play an active function in the determination devising procedure both at the household degree and community degree. This seemed to hold enhanced adult females ‘s position in rural countries.
Depletion of male labor in the rural countries
Young work forces migrating to other topographic points for work, has caused deficit in the handiness of local male labor, which has a stating consequence on the agricultural productiveness.
Impact on civilization
migrators are influenced by the civilization, life manner and values of the topographic point of finish, which broaden their skyline and broadening their mentality. At the same clip some of the expressed that they
Muller and Shariff ( 2011 ) analyzing the correlativity between the remittals earned from internal migration and human capital investing in rural India observed, that internal migration played a critical function in tackling the human capital in rural countries.
Negative Impacts of Migration
The entire absence of societal security/insurance for the migrators puts them at high hazards.
The migrators need to be made cognizant of the labour statute laws and rights.
The migrators need to be protected from development by the recruiting agents.
Bettering the life and working conditions of the migrators at the topographic points of finishs is critical utile phrases
The deteriorating societal and economic conditions of the dalits in Bihar..